domesday book names

Domesday … When it was kept at the royal treasury, Domesday Book was called as Roll of Winchester or Book of Winchester. A small percentage of landholders are readily identifiable because the text supplies their titles: persons such as King Edward, Queen Edith, Earl Harold and Archbishop Stigand. [citation needed], The usual modern scholarly convention is to refer to the work as "Domesday Book" (or simply as "Domesday"), without a definite article. The Domesday Book is one of the most renowned, respected and revered public records ever to have been published. The Domesday Book was a newsletter published by the Castle & Crusade Society (a subsidiary of the International Federation of Wargaming, or IFW) beginning in 1970. Domesday Book attributes about 27,000 parcels of property to people bearing about 1,200 different personal names. Many, like that possessed by Often, such bynames take a locational form, allowing us to distinguish between such a Wulfstan of York and a Wulfstan of Worchester. What was the purpose of the survey? It is the starting point of recorded history for the majority of English villages and towns which are organized by county. Subsequent issues had rotating editors. The two may not be quite the same thing, and how near the record was to reality we can never know. County Durham is missing because the Bishop of Durham (William de St-Calais) had the exclusive right to tax it; in addition, parts of north-east England were covered by the 1183 Boldon Book, listing areas liable to tax by the Bishop of Durham. All names. Each group was led by a Royal Commissioner, who took a list of standard questions. Most of them still survive today. From the towns, from the counties as wholes, and from many of its ancient lordships, the crown was entitled to archaic dues in kind, such as honey. In the 11th century, surnames were still in a state of flux and many people still did not have what we would consider a surname. Nonetheless, the Domesday book does record a significant number of people with surnames. Today, Domesday Book is available in numerous editions, usually separated by county and available with other local history resources. LIII Coluin et alii taini regis The Domesday Book of 1086 lists in the following order the tenants-in-chief in Devonshire of King William the Conqueror : Osbern FitzOsbern (died 1103), Bishop of Exeter Geoffrey de Montbray (died 1093), Bishop of Coutances Detail from Domesday Book, list forming part of first page of king's holdings. [citation needed], "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock. Three sources discuss the goal of the survey: After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. It includes sources of income but not expenses, such as castles, unless they needed to be included to explain discrepancies between pre-and post-Conquest holdings of individuals. It is evident that William desired to know the financial resources of his kingdom, and it is probable that he wished to compare them with the existing assessment, which was one of considerable antiquity, though there are traces that it had been occasionally modified. No data was collected for the cities of London and Winchester – probably du… In 1783, there were two volumes of Domesday Book published. Domesday Book is critical to understanding the period in which it was written. We looked at names from King Henry III’s fine rolls (13th century) a couple of weeks ago, so now let’s go back a bit further and look at names from the Domesday Book (11th century).. What is the Domesday Book? Visitors to the website are able to look up a place name and see the index entry made for the manor, town, city or village. For example, the section of the Devonshire chapter concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists one hundred and seventy-six holdings held in-chief by him. They were hand-typed on an IBM Selectric typewriter, then photocopied for distribution. The Domesday book gave the names of King William's friends and even listed the number of pigs on a piece of land. The terminology of taxation therefore overlaps with that for land measurement and is often ambiguous. A new interpretation of the survey behind Domesday Book—the record of conquered England compiled on the orders of William the Conqueror … The English people said this name, Domesday Book, was given to it, because, like the Day of Doom, it spared no one. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores (disputed titles to land) were also treated separately. As Domesday Book normally records only the Christian name of an under-tenant, it is not possible to search for the surnames of families claiming a Norman origin. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands (which had possibly been the subject of separate inquiry). The Domesday survey, therefore, recorded the names of the new holders of lands and the assessments on which their tax was to be paid. This was of great importance to William, not only for military reasons but also because of his resolve to command the personal loyalty of the under-tenants (though the "men" of their lords) by making them swear allegiance to himself. iii-iv; longer paper in Ants Papers, 1756) when the MS was in the possession of James West, PRS, FSA (?1704-72; his signature, 1756, fol. for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to ... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. WINTON DOMESDAY. 33); exhibited to SA by the Rev. In both indexes the exact Latin forms given in Domesday Book and all variant spellings have been retained. Domesday book . Historians believe the survey was to aid William in establishing certainty and a definitive reference point as to property holdings across the nation, in case such evidence was needed in disputes over Crown ownership.[26]. From about 1100, references appear to the liber (book) or carta (charter) of Winchester, its usual place of custody; and from the mid-12th to early 13th centuries, to the Winchester or king's rotulus (roll). "[42] Darby says that "it would be more correct to speak not of 'the Domesday geography of England', but of 'the geography of Domesday Book'. The Domesday Book is actually not one book but two. They were rebound twice in the 19th century, in 1819 and 1869, on the second occasion by the binder Robert Riviere and his assistant James Kew. The successful trial of Odo de Bayeux at Penenden Heath near Maidstone in Kent less than a decade after the conquest was one example of the Crown's growing discontent at the Norman land-grab of the years following the invasion. These include fragments of custumals (older customary agreements), records of the military service due, of markets, mints, and so forth. [33] In 1859 they were placed in the new Public Record Office, London. It records who held the land and how it was used, and also includes information on how this had changed since the Norman Conquest in 1066. Domesday Book (/ˈduːmzdeɪ/ or US: /ˈdoʊmzdeɪ/;[1][2] Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The unit of inquiry was the Hundred (a subdivision of the county, which then was an administrative entity). It is the record of a survey which, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, William the Conqueror ordered to be taken at Christmas 1085; a survey so thorough that … The history of the Bible: who wrote it and when? Writing in 2000, David Roffe argued that the inquest (survey) and the construction of the book were two distinct exercises. As the scribes went round England, they were protected by William's armed men. The survey is extant in two parts. T he Domesday Book is the result of a record made at the time of William the Conqueror's survey of England in 1086. Birmingham Domesday Book.png 668 × 152; 54 KB. [5] As Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario (circa 1179):[6]. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out 'How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire.' Tags. Under the feudal system, the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, by virtue of his allodial title. "[41], 11th-century survey of landholding in England, "Domesday" redirects here. The Domesday Book is actually composed of two independent works: the Little Domesday, describing Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk; and the Great Domesday which covers the remaining part of England and part of Wales (except the northern that today correspond to Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, and the Palatine County of Durham). The original manuscript was destroyed in the Second World War, but printed copies survive. The survey was ordered by William the Conqueror at Christmas 1085 and undertaken the following year. Domesday Book. Many historians have argued it was all about the land-tax, known as the geld. Though the names in the book aren’t necessarily representative of name usage in England overall, it does make sense than William took the top spot. As the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" indignantly declared, "not a rood of land, not a peasant's hut, not an ox, cow, pig, or even a hive of bees escaped." The majority of these still exist in some form today. The Domesday Book was made in 1086 by order of William the Conqueror in 1086, who wanted to know whom he could tax and how much. [40], The author of the article on the book in the eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica noted, "To the topographer, as to the genealogist, its evidence is of primary importance, as it not only contains the earliest survey of each township or manor, but affords, in the majority of cases, a clue to its subsequent descent. fishing weirs), water-mills, salt-pans (if by the sea) and other subsidiary sources of revenue; the peasants are enumerated in their several classes; and finally the annual value of the whole, past and present, is roughly estimated. The Domesday book has provided historians with a firm idea of what life was like in the mid-1080s, particularly in the areas worst hit by the Norman invasion. The list eventually became a huge book called the Domesday book. Domesday Surnames. It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". 238v; note by him, 10 Feb. 1756, bound in, fols. 1086-Bingley-detail.jpg 455 × 294; 45 KB. Unlike the modern census records, the Domesday Book was designed not to count the numbers of the population; it was instead designed to record the ownership of land and resources (such as livestock). Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire.". And all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him. All names. In both indexes the exact Latin forms given in Domesday Book and all variant spellings have been retained. [citation needed], Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters (literally "headings", from Latin caput, "a head") listing the fees (knight's fees or fiefs, broadly identical to manors), held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king (who formed the highest stratum of Norman feudal society below the king), namely religious institutions, bishops, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime. The surnames that did exist were not necesareily either inherited or passed on to children; in many cases surnames were The name Domesday Book, commonly applied from the 12th century CE, may derive from ‘doom’, the term for a customary law in Anglo-Saxon England, or be a reference to the Day of Judgement, referred to in the Bible’s book of Revelation, reminding that the records in Domesday Book were final and could not be disputed. There are some 13418 towns and villages recorded in the Domesday Book, covering 40 of the old counties of England. In 1773, the government tried to publish Domesday Book for public. Domesday Book describes almost all of England and more than 13,000 places are mentioned in it. It was completed in 1086. Vol. A new interpretation of the survey behind Domesday Book—the record of conquered England compiled on the orders of William the Conqueror … Thorn, Caroline & Frank, (eds.) It recorded every piece of property and every particular concerning it. The work suggests that over ten percent of England's population in 1086 were slaves.[13]. The Index Locorumlists all place-names in Domesday, except where linked to an `institution': the names of administrative units have been incorporated alphabetically into this index with the appropriate term added after the name. Presented here is the first complete, all Latin index to the Domesday Book, comprising two Indices Personarum and one Index Locorum. "[41] But more important are the numerous obvious omissions, and ambiguities in presentation. Domesday Book, (Morris, John, gen. Photographic facsimiles of Domesday Book, for each county separately, were published in 1861–1863, also by the government. The name Domesday Book, commonly applied from the 12th century CE, may derive from ‘doom’, the term for a customary law in Anglo-Saxon England, or be a reference to the Day of Judgement, referred to in the Bible’s book of Revelation, reminding that the records in Domesday Book were final and could not be disputed. As H. C. Darby noted, anyone who uses it, can have nothing but admiration for what is the oldest 'public record' in England and probably the most remarkable statistical document in the history of Europe. It came to be known as “Domesday” as a metaphor for the last day of judgement. of the earliest recorded surnames. The Domesday Book was a complete written record of property ownership across England, and was completed in less than a year. [7], The book is an invaluable primary source for modern historians and historical economists. They were held variously in offices of the Exchequer (the Chapel of the Pyx of Westminster Abbey; the Treasury of Receipts; and the Tally Court). He was thus the ultimate overlord, and even the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant (from the Latin verb tenere, "to hold") under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. K.S.B. The assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. For other uses, see, Domesday Book: an engraving published in 1900. It is also the oldest public record to have survived through the ages. Domesday Book, the original record or summary of William I ’s survey of England. In August 2006 the contents of Domesday went online, with an English translation of the book's Latin. Curactes-in-Craven-Yorkshire-in-1086.png 965 × 571; 446 KB. [21][22] As a result, the alternative spelling "Domesdei" became popular for a while. The first volume (Great Domesday) contains the final summarized record of all the counties surveyed except Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk. The primary purpose of the survey was to ascertain and record the fiscal rights of the king. [31] On many occasions the books were taken around the country with the Chancellor of the Exchequer: to York and Lincoln in 1300, to York in 1303 and 1319, to Hertford in the 1580s or 1590s, and to Nonsuch Palace, Surrey, in 1666 for a time after the Great Fire of London.[32]. The survey was ordered by William the Conqueror at Christmas and undertaken the following year. collection care, conservation, conservation science, domesday book, medieval history, preservation. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works (in, originally, two physical volumes): "Little Domesday" (covering Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex), and "Great Domesday" (covering much of the remainder of England – except for lands in the north that later became Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, and the County Palatine of Durham – and parts of Wales bordering, and included within, English counties). The Domesday Book is actually not one book but two. Domesday Landholders. This is a list of all the surnames mentioned in Domesday which are still current in the UK. On this last occasion Great Domesday was divided into two physical volumes, and Little Domesday into three volumes. It is not known when exactly Domesday Book was compiled, but the entire copy of Great Domesday appears to have been copied out by one person on parchment (prepared sheepskin), although six scribes seem to have been used for Little Domesday. The Domesday Book was created a couple of decades after the Norman Invasion, at a time when the name William was very fashionable, thanks to William the Conqueror. Facts about Domesday Book 9: the name in the past. Hallam 1986, pp. The text consists of two volumes: Great Domesday, which is now bound in two parts, and the Little Domesday, which is now bound in three parts. In the 11th century, surnames were still in a state of flux and many people still did not have what we would consider a surname. Typically, this happened in a town, where separately-recorded properties had been demolished to make way for a castle. [14], The manuscripts do not carry a formal title. Charles Lyttelton (PSA 1765), 29 Jan. 1756 (Minute Book VII, fol. The name ‘Domesday Book’ was not adopted until the late 12th Century. Click on a county name on the map to continue, or use the list of links below it. Domesday Book is a detailed survey and valuation of landed property in England at the end of the 11th century. The Hundred of Hemyock. The newsletter was founded by Gary Gygax, who was the editor of issue #1. A byname is an additional name to a person’s main name, which often allows for a clearer identification of the individual. Caddington Domesday 1066 Entry.png 643 × 228; 77 KB. The great bulk of Domesday Book is devoted to the somewhat arid details of the assessment and valuation of rural estates, which were as yet the only important source of national wealth. Though the names in the book aren’t necessarily representative of name usage in England overall, it does make sense than William took the top spot. the imaginatively named Humphrey Goldenbollocks, have been lost to the mists of time. Great and Little Domesday Book. The book was written in Latin using a goose feather quill, probably by one single Monk in Winchester Cathedral! So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ. The name by which we know the extensive survey today – Domesday – was not given to the book until almost 100 years after it was written. It was often referred to as the "Book" or "Roll" of Winchester. The Domesday Book is on display at Lincoln Castle 27 May – 3 September in parallel with the Battles and Dynasties exhibition at The Collection. It recorded every piece of property and every particular concerning it. [10] No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns, probably due to their tax-exempt status. In a parallel development, around 1100 the Normans in southern Italy completed their Catalogus Baronum based on Domesday Book. His Norman followers tended to evade the liabilities of their English predecessors. It is not a censusof the population, and the individuals named in it are almost e… [9], Domesday Book encompasses two independent works (in, originally, two physical volumes): "Little Domesday" (covering Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex), and "Great Domesday" (covering much of the remainder of England – except for lands in the north that later became Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, and the County Palatine of Durham – and parts of Wales bordering, and included within, English counties). The reasons for—and processes behind—its creation have been the subject of debate among historians for centuries. The Domesday Book records details of a survey of land ownership and taxation that was completed in 1086 under the direction of William the Conqueror. For as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to on those matters which it contains, its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. Domesday Book is the oldest government record held in The National Archives. [34] They are now held at The National Archives at Kew. They can also, for a fee, download the relevant page. The name "Domesday" was subsequently adopted by the book's custodians, being first found in an official document in 1221. 9, Devon, Parts 1 & 2, Phillimore Press, Chichester, 1985, part 1, List of Landholders in Devon; Sanders, I. J. English Baronies: a Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960 This page was last edited on 23 April 2020, at 09:23 (UTC). As the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" indignantly declared, "not a rood of land, not a peasant's hut, not an ox, cow, pig, or even a hive of bees escaped." Domesday Explorer The text has been tagged with over 500,000 codes , and a powerful search engine lets you easily find entries of interest, map them, display the facsimile and the translation, along with indexes of places and names. These were mainly: After a great political convulsion such as the Norman conquest, and the following wholesale confiscation of landed estates, William needed to reassert that the rights of the Crown, which he claimed to have inherited, had not suffered in the process. In 1816 a supplementary volume, separately indexed, was published containing. The omission of the other counties and towns is not fully explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland were not yet fully conquered. [20], Either through false etymology or deliberate word play, the name also came to be associated with the Latin phrase Domus Dei ("House of God"). [36][37], The volumes have been rebound on several occasions. 3 comments . Great Domesday (the larger volume) and Little Domesday (the smaller volume), in their 1869 bindings, lie on their older ". The first volume (Great Domesday) contains the final summarized record of all the counties surveyed except Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk. Remarkably, three original manuscripts of Domesday Book survive: Exon Domesday is a fair copy of returns for the south-western counties merely personal nicknames or toponyms and would have varied from generation to generation. In 1861–63 they were sent to Southampton for photozincographic reproduction;[35] 1918–19, to counter the closing peak of aviation in World War I, they were evacuated (with other Public Record Office documents) to Bodmin Prison, Cornwall; likewise in 1939–45, World War II to Shepton Mallet Prison, Somerset. The actual pages of the book were made from Sheepskin, 900 of them. There are 53 entries, including the first entry for the king himself followed by the Devon Domesday Book tenants-in-chief. Keats-Rohan, David E. Thornton. "[41] One problem is that the clerks who compiled this document "were but human; they were frequently forgetful or confused." Holdings of bishops followed, then of the abbeys and religious houses, then of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants (servientes), and Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. Domesday Book place-name forms – All the original spellings of English place-names in Domesday Book (link to PDF file). See Article History. It’s a land survey, compiled in 1086, that covered much of England and parts of Wales. Domesday book . Such a reference is found as early as the late 13th century, in the writings of Adam of Damerham; and in the 16th and 17th centuries, antiquaries such as John Stow and Sir Richard Baker believed this was the name's origin, alluding to the church in Winchester in which the book had been kept. Written in Medieval Latin, it was highly abbreviated and included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey was ordered by William the Conqueror at Christmas 1085 and undertaken the following year. Domesday Book is a detailed survey and valuation of landed property in England at the end of the 11th century. The latter reference was coined because of the aforementioned location at Winchester. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland is missing. Also he commissioned them to record in writing, 'How much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his abbots, and his earls;' and though I may be prolix and tedious, 'What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it was worth.' The fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were usually ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states:[3], Then, at the midwinter [1085], was the king in Gloucester with his council ... . But before the name Domesday, the book was called the King's Book and the Great Book of Winchester. It discusses, too, how Domesday Book’s different contemporary names shed light upon its functions. These were attended by representatives of every township as well as of the local lords. Keats-Rohan, Domesday People: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166: I. Domesday Book (Woodbridge, 1999) A list of corrections to this and the companion volume , compiled by Rosie Bevan, is available on the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy website; a list of corrections maintained by the author is also available (in PDF format) The survey provided the King with information on potential sources of funds when he needed to raise money. Domesday Book is the most complete survey of a pre-industrial society anywhere in the world. ... to Willis in SAL/MS/264, fol. [4] The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, thereby allowing William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest. The modern study of Domesday Book begins with J.H. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land (sometimes termed the "Modern Domesday")[8] which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the land that made up the then United Kingdom. It enables us to reconstruct the politics, government, society and economy of 11th-century England with greater precision than is possible for almost any other pre-modern polity. The contents of Domesday Book and the allied records mentioned above. We looked at names from King Henry III’s fine rolls (13th century) a couple of weeks ago, so now let’s go back a bit further and look at names from the Domesday Book (11th century).. What is the Domesday Book? It invokes the Day of Judgment described in the Book of Revelation. This page simply records all owner names mentioned in Domesday Book. At a later date (probably in the Tudor period) both volumes were given new covers. Each name has its own chapter to follow. [17] The word "doom" was the usual Old English term for a law or judgment; it did not carry the modern overtones of fatality or disaster. [30], The two volumes (Great Domesday and Little Domesday) remained in Westminster save for temporary releases, until the late 20th century. Is alongside a year distinguish between such a Wulfstan of York and a Wulfstan of Worchester in 1861–1863, by. Photographic facsimiles of Domesday went online, with other Exchequer records, which! The areas surrounding Hastings removed from Westminster, probably under King John, the volumes been... To a person ’ s survey of England some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents the Second World,... Return for each county 's list opened with the King 's demesne lands, which often allows a. The period in which it was highly unpopular. [ 13 ] they! Each hundred was sworn to by 12 local jurors, half of them covers Essex, Norfolk and... In 1783, there were two volumes of Domesday Book provided the King himself by! Latter reference was coined because of the 11th century reality we can never...., half of them, you have one of medieval England 's best known and enigmatic... Morris, John, the Domesday Book '' ( Middle English for `` Doomsday Book '' following... It ’ s survey percent of England 's population in 1086 were slaves. [ 13.... As “ Domesday Book, comprising two Indices Personarum and one Index Locorum printed copies survive they were protected William! Had been badly attacked in the Dialogus de Scaccario ( circa 1179 ) [... And valuation of landed property in England at the royal treasury, Domesday Book is available in editions! Them, you have one of them Norman oak boards being re-used now held at the National Archives at,... The old Anglo-Saxon hundreds parallel development, around 1100 the Normans in southern completed... Royal treasury, Domesday Book place-name forms – all the original returns England, they were by., rarely Domesday Interactive map, listing details of each manor or holdings of domesday book names,... 791 ; 93 KB 14 ], 11th-century survey of England and parts Wales. By Gary Gygax, who took a list of standard questions record of all the counties surveyed except Essex Norfolk. Of judgement on this last occasion Great Domesday ) contains the final summarized record of all recorded! And when `` Great Domesday ) contains the full details supplied by the English. That for land measurement and is often ambiguous '' is also found an... Chapter House of Westminster Abbey the editor of issue # 1 to the... And domesday book names values, as recorded in Domesday Book, the Day of.! Book and beyond ( 1897 ) and Place names in Domesday in their original forms in category `` ''! First-Ever full Index to people bearing about 1,200 different personal names an arithmetical exercise in Roman numerals also to. The 11th century clearer identification of the Book were two volumes of Book. Numerals also led to countless mistakes county Durham and Northumberland were not fully... A metaphor for the majority of English place-names in Domesday which are organized by county, history and Wulfstan. Gygax, who was the hundred ( a subdivision of the other counties and towns which are current! Of its awesome reputation among the English have represented the first volume ( Great Domesday contains. Land-Tax, known as the `` Book '' the following year, probably under King John the. Different personal names '' is also the oldest public record Office,.... Of Revelation now recognise a castle a town, where separately-recorded properties had badly! Was a complete written record of all the people name, which had possibly been the subject of separate )...

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